A new burrow


It’s just over a week since the first brood fledged and the adults are engaged in excavating a new burrow. It’s come as a bit of a surprise to me, as the female seemed to have settled on an existing burrow about 6ft to the right of the one that the first brood were raised in. She’d been spending a lot of time in this burrow, and I’d seen the adults mating again over a week before the first brood fledged (I was beginning to wonder if they were getting a new brood underway before the first one had even fledged). I have no idea why they’ve decided to dig a new burrow after seeming to commit to the old one, but it looks like the new burrow is going to be home to the second brood and I’m waiting now to see when they settle back into the behaviour patterns typical during egg incubation.

While the burrow is under construction, both birds spend the majority of their time at the nest site. The bird that is not digging stands vigil nearby and emits occasional calls which are quite subdued in comparison to their normal call, this presumably lets the bird in the burrow know that they are present and that all is well outside. When the bird in the burrow emerges, the other often flies straight into the burrow, seemingly keen to see what the other has accomplished and do some work themselves.

Another thing I’ve noticed during this phase is that the male seems very keen to pass fish to the female, but for the time being she’s clearly not interested. I assume the fish passing, and any subsequent mating is on hold until she is happy with the new burrow.

During the time I’ve spent observing the digging of the new burrow, I’ve also seen kingfishers flying past the nest site at speed, occasionally prompting a response from the resident adults. I can only assume that this is one or more of the fledglings; I wonder how long their presence in the adults territory will be tolerated.

Last to leave

The first brood of kingfishers has fledged and less than a day later only one fledgling remains near the nest site. I saw 3 youngsters Thursday evening, but by the following morning there was just one left at the nest site. I’ve spent most of Saturday and Sunday walking the river, but I’ve only spotted the adult birds, so I’ve no idea where the youngsters have gone or how they’re faring now they’re out of the nest burrow. On a positive note, from the little I saw of them, they seemed full of life and quite capable of flying up and down the river at pretty much the same pace as the adults. I’d love to know how they get on, but I suspect I’m going to be disappointed, though I’ll continue to watch the river in the hope that I might stumble upon them over the next few weeks.

Back at the nest site, the female is spending a lot of time in the new burrow. When she’s not in the burrow she seems to be staying close to the nest, sitting in the tree opposite the nest preening or flying 20-30 yards upstream to another perch she seems to have taken to. The male returns every hour or so and regularly passes fish to her and attempts to mate. After the regular feeding of the young that’s been going on for the last few weeks the nest site suddenly feels very quiet. I’m actually a bit taken a back by the speed with which the youngsters have left the area. I’d kind of hoped they’d stick around for a few days before the adults booted them out of the territory, but as things stand it appears that they’ve left!

Brand new kingfishers

It’s the 26th day since I first saw the female taking a fish into the nest burrow and the young are out and about. I’ve been at work all day, so I didn’t get the river until shortly before 7pm. For the first half an hour, other than a brief glimpse of the adult female I saw nothing. I suspected that the brood had fledged when there was no sign of the male who had been so diligently taking fish to the burrow every 15 minutes the previous day. After 45 minutes I was just about ready to move out and try walking the river to see if I could see any sign of the young when a small kingfisher shaped bird came fluttering past me and landed on the trunk of a fallen tree over the river. So here was my first glimpse of one of the brand new kingfishers that have been nurtured in the privacy and security of the burrow across the river from me for the last few weeks. You can see it’s a fledgling by the pale tip on the beak, the dull colour of the feet and by the plumage that is markedly duller than the adults.

A few minutes after my first sighting, the adult male arrives and with him 2 more youngsters, I can see him feeding them, but I’m unable to get a shot, and before I have chance to digest what’s happening 3 birds are off downstream at high speed. All this time, the female is sitting impassively by, watching proceedings from a small tree, she doesn’t appear to be taking any role in the feeding or following of the young. About 10 minutes later the male arrives back at the nest site and the male and female birds begin calling to each other, the male has a fish, but with no young nearby he flies over to the female and passes the fish to her. A few seconds later, after she has eaten the fish the male hovers above the female and mates with her, then immediately heads off down stream in the direction of the youngsters.

As I watch the female sitting quietly in the tree I notice some movement to my right. The mink hops onto the fallen tree and scampers along the branches until she’s about 20ft from the bank, sitting on the branch over the water, she takes a drink and then sits up as she notices the noise of my camera shutter.

I really didn’t want to see the mink today of all days, I just hope that the young kingfishers are equipped with enough common sense to keep out of the minks way. The mink is probably also feeding young in a den somewhere nearby. I’ve seen her (I say her, as the males do not take part in rearing young) carrying fish and small mammals downstream, which I assume are for feeding to her young.

23 days – blinded by the light

It’s now 23 days since the feeding of the young started. I’ve had to visit the site in the afternoon after work, & the sun’s right in my eyes from my vantage point opposite the nest. The river is alive with swallows, zipping up and down catching insects. All this is making it difficult for me to see whether the kingfishers are still taking fish to the burrow; the nest is in shadow so I have to squint to try and make out the burrow entrance. After twenty minutes or so both birds fly in and land a few yards in front of me, the male has a fish and commences to edge down the branch towards the female. He passes the fish to her and flies off downstream. I’m now watching to see if she is going to take it across to the burrow, but no, after holding it in her beak for a few seconds she swallows it. The female’s focus now seems to be on looking after herself, and I think this maybe because she’s now entered the gestation period prior to egg laying for the second brood.

I’m beginning to wonder if it’s possible that the young have fledged a bit early and have moved up or downstream when I hear the male calling as he arrives back at the nest site, he has a large bullhead which he adjusts slightly before flying over to the nest with it. So they’re still in the nest, and I’m wondering if they’re going to fledge bang on the optimum 25 days, which will be Wednesday.

Burrow selection

With a few days still to go before the first brood fledges, preparations for the next brood are well under way. After mating a few days ago, both adults now seem to be turning their attention to where the next brood is going to be reared. The male seems to want to dig a new burrow, but the female seems to be favouring the old burrow that the sand martins were checking out a couple of weeks ago. I wonder if her aggressive reaction to them had something to do with her having already earmarked the burrow for her second brood. Hmmm, could this be a case of forward planning by our female kingfisher?

Still feeding the chicks in the burrow

21 days now since I first saw the female taking fish into the burrow. With fledging fast approaching the female is definitely taking a back seat on the feeding. She’s taking in one fish for about every 4 that the male is bringing back to the nest, and she’s spending most of her time sitting quietly opposite the burrow preening. The behaviour seems about right I suppose, with mating having repeatedly taken place a few days ago, the female is now getting ready to produce the next clutch of eggs. I don’t think the youngsters are going to get much tlc from the parents once they emerge from the burrow, this pair seem to be geared up for a rapid turnaround.

Fish pass & feed

Although the chicks are still a week or so from fledging, the adults behaviour seems to be shifting back towards mating. I’ve seen several fish passes, where the male brings a fish and presents it to the female, a behaviour which is a typical pre-cursor to mating. When this was happening before the first brood, the female would immediately eat the fish and hang around waiting for the male to bring her another, whereas now, with hungry mouths still to feed, the fish is taken straight over to the nest burrow.

I know that once the young emerge they will only be tolerated for a few days before being driven out of the parents territory. The fact that breeding behaviour is already underway suggests that this pair are not going to waste any time getting a second brood underway.

If you’re curious about what happened after the fish passing, keep checking the blog, as I have a rather special film clip coming soon.

Feeding & breeding

An early start this morning to try and use the forecast sunny morning to photograph the kingfishers entering the nest burrow. This operation means I’m on the same side of the river as the nest, in a small reed screen I’ve had set up for a few weeks.

After the first half hour I’m relieved to see that both adults are completely  ignoring my lens sticking out above the screen, I can even slowly move it to frame shots without them becoming agitated. The light hits the right spot on the bank at about 8am, by which time it’s clouded over, so as the light’s no good I point my camera over at the perch they use before entering the nest to see if I can get anything interesting on video.

The kingfishers are spending a lot of time on the perch opposite the nest this morning. The male sits and preens for ten minutes while the female goes off to catch a fish, and then the female sits and preens while the male goes off. When the male returns with a fish, something unexpected happens; instead of flying to the burrow, the male perches near the female and passes the fish to her. This is a typical pre-cursor to breeding with the male feeding the female, however, rather than eating it, the female turns the fish around and takes it over to the nest burrow.

The perching and preening opposite the nest goes on for the next couple of hours and I see another 2 fish passes (and one very brief attempted mating), each time the female taking the fish into the burrow. Also, I briefly spot the mink on the opposite bank scuttling around (it’s getting to be too much of a regular sighting for my liking).

At about 10:15 the clouds part again for a few minutes and I set up my lens on the burrow. I’m waiting (with the female, sitting opposite me) for the male to return and hoping the sun doesn’t go in. Finally he arrives with a fish, and after briefly perching opposite the nest, he flies straight over (no fish pass this time). I hit the shutter release, ratatatat, I fire off about 5 shots on entry and the same on exit, the kingfishers don’t seem to notice the noise (which is not always the case) and remain perched opposite me.

After a few more minutes watching them perched opposite my position, both birds head downstream, so I take my opportunity to leave the hide and head home for a coffee.

Meet the martins…

I captured some fascinating footage on Monday when I went to check the flood water levels. All in all it was a great session, the water levels had dropped again, I had a brief glimpse of an otter and then I noticed that we had some new potential residents on the bank.

A pair of Sand Martin’s are in and out of the burrow on the right hand side of the bank. This is where they nested last year, so it looks like they favour the location. From what I could tell last year, the kingfishers pretty much ignored the sand martins, but I’m not so sure that this years female is as tolerant. In the clip you can see her hovering along the bank face, obviously agitated, and then, in a move that surprised me, she perches at the sand martin burrow entrance and goes all the way inside. I assume having only just arrived, there are no eggs yet and there were no martins inside at the time, but this seems quite bold behaviour from our female. It’ll be interesting to see if the martins stay put, or are evicted by the kingfishers.